Friday, May 22, 2015

Chemistry Syllabus 0653 Syllabus 2017-2018

Cambridge IGCSE Science Combined 0653 Syllabus 2019-2021
Chemistry Syllabus

The full Cambridge IGCSE Combined Science Syllabus can be found fficial CIE syllabus can be found here. It is best to always refer to the original syllabus. 
The Chemistry Syllabus runs from C1-C12

C1. The particulate nature of matter

·       State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases
·       Describe the structure of solids, liquids and gases in terms of particle separation, arrangement and types of motion
·       Describe the changes of state in terms of melting, boiling, evaporation, freezing and condensation
·       Explain changes of state in terms of particle theory and the energy changes involved*
·       Describe qualitatively the pressure and temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its particles
·       Demonstrate understanding of the terms atom, molecule and ion

C2. Experimental techniques

·       Name and suggest appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders
2.2 Criteria of purity
·       Interpret simple chromatograms
·       Interpret simple chromatograms, including the  use of Rf values
2.3 Methods of purification
·       Describe and explain methods of separation and purification using a suitable solvent, filtration, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation and paper chromatography
·       Suggest suitable separation and purification techniques, given information about the substances involved

C3. Atoms, elements and compounds

3.1 Physical and chemical changes
·       Identify physical and chemical changes, and understand the differences between them.
3.2 Elements, compounds and mixtures
·       Describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures and between metals and non-metals
·       Define the terms solvent, solute, solution and concentration
3.3 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
·       Describe the structure of an atom in terms of a central nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, and ‘shells’ of electrons
·       Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of the outer shell electrons  (The ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required)
·       State the charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons
·       Define and use proton number (atomic number) as the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
·       Define and use nucleon number (mass number) as the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
·       Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table, with special reference to the elements of proton numbers 1 to 20*
3.4 Ions and ionic bonds
·       Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain.
·       Using dot and cross diagrams describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII.
·       Describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements to include the strong attraction between ions because of their opposite electrical charges *
·       Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds as a regular arrangement of alternating positive and negative ions, exemplified by the sodium chloride structure*
3.5 Molecules and covalent bonds
·       State that non-metallic elements form simple molecules with covalent bonds between atoms
·       Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4, NH3 and HCl as the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration including the use of dot-and-cross diagrams
·       Use and draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the bonding in the more complex covalent molecules such as N2, C2H4, CH3OH, and CO2*
·       Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent compounds
·       Explain the differences in melting point and boiling point of ionic and covalent compounds in terms of attractive forces*

C4. Stoichiometry

·       Use the symbols of the elements to write the formulae of simple compounds.
·       Determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present*
·       Deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms present
·       Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a model or a diagrammatic representation
·       Construct and use word equations
·       Interpret and balance simple symbol equations
·       Construct and use symbol equations, with state symbols, including ionic equations*

C5. Electricity and chemistry

·       Define electrolysis as the breakdown of an ionic compound when molten or in aqueous solution by the passage of electricity
·       Use the terms inert electrode, electrolyte, anode and cathode
·       Describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and the reactions at the electrodes, in terms of gain of electrons by cations and loss of electrons by anions to form atoms*
·       Describe the electrode products and the observations made, using inert electrodes
·       (platinum or carbon), in the electrolysis of:
       molten lead(II) bromide
       concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
       dilute sulfuric acid
·       Predict the products of the electrolysis of a specified molten binary compound*

·       C6. Energy changes in chemical reactions

·       Describe the meaning of exothermic and endothermic reactions
·       Describe bond breaking as an endothermic process and bond forming as an exothermic process
·       Draw and label energy level diagrams for exothermic and endothermic reactions using data provided
·       Interpret energy level diagrams showing exothermic and endothermic reactions and the activation energy of a reaction

·       C7. Chemical reactions

7.1 Rate (speed) of reaction
·       Describe practical methods for investigating rate of a reaction which produces a gas
·       Interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with rate of reaction
·       Suggest suitable apparatus, given information, for experiments, including collection of gases and measurement of rates of reaction*
·       Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts and temperature on the rate of reactions Note: Candidates should be encouraged to use the term rate rather than speed.
·       Describe and explain the effect of changing concentration in terms of frequency of collisions between reacting particles*
·       Describe and explain the effect of changing temperature in terms of the frequency of collisions between reacting particles and more colliding particles possessing the minimum energy (activation energy) to react*
·       7.2 Redox
·       Describe oxidation and reduction in chemical reactions in terms of oxygen loss / gain
·       (Oxidation state limited to its use to name ions, e.g. iron(II), iron(III), copper(II).)
·       Define and identify an oxidising agent as a substance which oxidises another substance during a redox reaction and a reducing agent as a substance which reduces another substance during a redox reaction*

·       C8. Acids, bases and salts

·       8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
·       Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only) measured using Universal Indicator
·       Describe the characteristic properties of acids (exemplified by dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid) including their effect on litmus paper and their reactions with metals, bases and carbonates
·       Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil
8.2 Preparation of salts
·       Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts using techniques specified in Section C2 and the reactions specified in Section C8.1
·       Suggest a method of making a given salt from suitable starting material, given appropriate information*
8.3 Identification of ions and gases
·       Describe and use the following tests to identify:  aqueous cations and cations, anions and gases.

·       C9. The Periodic Table

9.1 The Periodic Table
·       Describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying elements and its use to predict properties of elements
9.2 Periodic trends
·       Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period
·       Describe and explain the relationship between Group number, number of outer shell electrons and metallic/non-metallic character*
9.3 Group properties
·       Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point, density and reaction with water
·       Predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data, where appropriate*
·       Describe the halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII, as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour and physical state
·       State the reaction of chlorine, bromine and iodine with other halide ions
·       Predict the properties of other elements in Group VII, given data where appropriate
·       Identify trends in other groups, given data about the elements concerned*
9.4 Transition elements
·       Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities, high melting points and forming coloured compounds, and which, as elements and compounds, often act as catalysts
9.5 Noble gases
·       Describe the noble gases, in Group VIII or 0, as being unreactive, monoatomic gases and explain this in terms of electronic structure
·       State the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps, helium for filling balloons

·       C10. Metals

10.1 Properties of metals
·       Describe the general physical properties of metals as solids with high melting and boiling points, malleable and good conductors of heat and electricity
·       Describe alloys, such as brass, as mixtures of a metal with other elements
·       Explain in terms of their properties why alloys are used instead of pure metals
·       Identify representations of alloys from diagrams of structure*
10.2 Reactivity series
·       Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, (carbon), zinc, iron, (hydrogen) and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the elements with: water or steam dilute hydrochloric acid reduction of their oxides with carbon
·       Describe the reactivity series in terms of the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction, if any, with the aqueous ions of other listed metals*
·       Deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results
10.3 Extraction of metals from their ores
·       Describe the use of carbon in the extraction of copper from copper oxide
·       Describe and explain the essential reactions in the extraction of iron from hematite in the blast furnace
C + O2 CO2
C + CO2 2CO
Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2*
·       Know that aluminium is extracted from the ore bauxite by electrolysis
·       Relate the method of extraction of a metal from its ore to its position in the reactivity series for the metals listed in section C10.2 and for other metals, given information*
·       Describe metal ores as a finite resource and hence the need to recycle metals

·       C11. Air and water

11.1 Water
·       Describe a chemical test for water using copper(II) sulfate and cobalt(II) chloride
·       Describe, in outline the treatment of the water supply in terms of filtration and chlorination
11.2 Air
·       State the composition of clean air as being a mixture of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and small quantities of noble gases, water vapour and carbon dioxide
·       Name the common pollutants in air as being carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
·       State the adverse effect of these common air pollutants on buildings and on health
·       State the conditions required for the rusting of iron (presence of oxygen and water)
·       Describe and explain barrier methods of rust prevention, including paint and other coatings
11.3 Carbon dioxide and methane
·       State the formation of carbon dioxide: as a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances as a product of respiration as a product of the reaction between an acid and a carbonate as a product of thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
·       State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases
·       State that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases cause an enhanced greenhouse effect, which may contribute to climate change*

·       C12. Organic chemistry

C12.1 Fuels
·       State that coal, natural gas and petroleum are fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide on combustion
·       Name methane as the main constituent of natural gas
·       Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful
·       fractions by fractional distillation
·       Describe the properties of molecules within a fraction*
·       Name the uses of the fractions as:
       refinery gas for bottled gas for heating and cooking
       gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars
       naphtha fraction as a feedstock for makingchemicals
       diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines
       bitumen for road surfaces
·       12.2 Homologous series
·       1 Describe the homologous series of alkanes and alkenes as families of compounds with the same general formula and similar chemical properties*
·       12.3 Alkanes
·       Describe alkanes as saturated hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single covalent bonds
·       Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning
·       Describe complete combustion of hydrocarbons to give carbon dioxide and  water
·       12.4 Alkenes
·       Describe alkenes as unsaturated hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one double covalent bond
·       State that cracking is a reaction that produces Alkenes
·       Describe the formation of smaller alkanes, alkenes and hydrogen by the cracking of larger alkane molecules and state the conditions required for cracking*
·       Recognise saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons:
       from molecular structures
       by their reaction with aqueous bromine
·       Describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation of
·       monomer units