Friday, May 22, 2015

Chemistry Syllabus 0653 Syllabus 2017-2018

Chemistry Syllabus 0653 Syllabus - Chemistry
The official CIE syllabus can be found here:
It is best to always refer to the original syllabus.

C1. The Particulate Nature of Matter
Demonstrate understanding of the terms atom and molecule.

C2. Experimental Techniques
1 Describe paper chromatography.
2 Interpret simple chromatograms.
3 Describe methods of separation and purification: filtration, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation.
4 Suggest suitable purification techniques, given information about the substances involved

C3. Atoms, Elements and Compounds
3.1 Physical and chemical changes
1 Identify physical and chemical changes, and understand the differences between them.   

3.2 Elements, compounds and mixtures
1 Describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures.
2 Demonstrate understanding of the concepts of element, compound and mixture.*

3.3 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table

1 Describe the structure of an atom in terms of electrons and a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.
2 Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required).*
3 State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons.
4 Define atomic (proton) number and mass (nucleon) number.
5 Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table (see section C9), with special reference to the elements with proton numbers 1 to 20. (A copy of the Periodic Table will be provided in Papers 1 and 3.)

3.4 Ions and ionic bonds
1 Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain.
2 Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII.
3 Explain the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements.*

3.5 Molecules and covalent bonds

1 State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding involving shared pairs of electrons.
2 Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4 and HCl. *
3 Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the multiple bonding in N2, C2H4 and CO2 *

C4. Stoichiometry
1 Use the symbols of the elements to write the formulae of simple compounds.
2 Deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms present.
3 Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a model or a diagrammatic representation.
4 Determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present.*
5 Construct and use word equations.
6 Construct and use symbolic equations with state symbols.*
7 Deduce the balanced equation for a chemical reaction, given relevant information.*

C5. Electricity and Chemistry
1 State that electrolysis is the chemical effect of electricity on ionic compounds, causing them to break up into simpler substances, usually elements.
2 Use the terms electrode, electrolyte, anode and cathode.
3 Describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and the reactions at the electrodes. *
4 Describe the electrode products, using inert electrodes, in the electrolysis of:
• molten lead (II) bromide,
• aqueous copper chloride.
5 Predict the products of the electrolysis of a specified binary compound in the molten state.*

C6. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
6.1 Energetics of a reaction

1 Relate the terms exothermic and endothermic to the temperature changes observed during chemical reactions.
2 Demonstrate understanding that exothermic and endothermic changes relate to the transformation of chemical energy to heat (thermal energy), and vice versa.*

C7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Rate of reaction
1 Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysis and temperature on the rate of reaction.
2 Describe a practical method for investigating the rate of a reaction involving gas evolution.
3 Interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with rate of reaction.*
4 Describe and explain the effects of temperature and concentration in terms of collisions between reacting particles (concept of activation energy will not be examined).*
5 Define catalyst as an agent which increases rate but which remains unchanged.

7.2 Redox
1 Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen loss / gain, and identify such reactions from given information.

C8. Acids, Bases and Salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
1 Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only) measured using full-range indicator and litmus.
2 Describe the characteristic reactions between acids and metals, bases (including alkalis) and carbonates.*
3 Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in the environment (air, water and soil).

8.2 Preparation of salts
1 Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts using techniques selected from section C2.1 and the reactions specified in section C8.1.
2 Suggest a method of making a given salt from suitable starting material, given appropriate information.*

8.3 Identification of ions and gases
1 Use the following tests to identify: aqueous cations:
• ammonium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and zinc by means of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate. (Formulae of complex ions are not required.) anions:
• carbonate by means of dilute acid and then limewater,
• chloride by means of aqueous silver nitrate under acidic conditions,
• nitrate by reduction with aluminium,
• sulfate by means of aqueous barium ions under acidic conditions, gases:
• ammonia by means of damp red litmus paper,
• carbon dioxide by means of limewater,
• chlorine by means of damp litmus paper,
• hydrogen by means of a lighted splint,
• oxygen by means of a glowing splint.

 C9. The Periodic Table
1 Describe the way the Periodic Table classifies elements in order of atomic (proton) number.
2 Use the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements by means of groups and periods.*

 9.1 Periodic trends
1 Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period.
2 Describe the relationship between Group number, number of outer-shell (valency) electrons and metallic/non-metallic character.*

9.2 Group properties
1 Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point and reaction with water.
2 Predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data where appropriate.*
3 Describe the trends in properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII including colour, physical state and reactions with other halide ions.
4 Predict the properties of other elements in Group VII, given data where appropriate.*

9.3 Transition elements
1 Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities, high melting points and forming coloured compounds, and which, as elements and compounds, often act as catalysts.

9.4 Noble gases
1 Describe the noble gases as being unreactive.
2 Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps, helium for filling balloons.*

C10. Metals
10.1 Properties of metals
1 Distinguish between metals and non-metals by their general physical and chemical properties.
2 Identify and interpret diagrams that represent the structure of an alloy.*
3 Explain why metals are often used in the form of alloys.

10.2 Reactivity series
1 Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, hydrogen and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the elements with
• water or steam,
• dilute hydrochloric acid (except for alkali metals).
2 Describe the reactivity series to the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction, if any, with:
• the aqueous ions of other listed metals,
• the oxides of the other listed metals. *
3 Deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results.*

10.3 Extraction of metals
1 Describe the use of carbon in the extraction of copper from copper oxide.
2 Describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron in the blast furnace. *
3 Relate the method of extraction of a metal from its ore to its position in the reactivity series limited to Group I and II metals, aluminium, iron and copper.*

C11. Air and Water
1 State a chemical test for water.
2 Describe and explain, in outline, the purification of the water supply by filtration and chlorination.
3 Describe the composition of clean air as being a mixture of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and small quantities of noble gases, water vapour and carbon dioxide.
4 Explain why the proportion of carbon dioxide in air is increasing, and why this is important.*
5 Describe the formation of carbon dioxide:
• as a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances,
• as a product of respiration,
• as a product of the reaction between an acid and a carbonate,
• as a product of thermal decomposition.
6 Describe the rusting of iron in terms of a reaction involving air and water, and simple methods of rust prevention, including paint and other coatings to exclude oxygen.

C12. Organic Chemistry 

12.1 Fuels
1 Recall coal, natural gas and petroleum as fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide on combustion.
2 Name methane as the main constituent of natural gas.
3 Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation.
4 Understand the essential principle of fractional distillation in terms of differing boiling points (ranges) of fractions related to molecular size and intermolecular attractive forces.*
5 State the use of:
• refinery gas for bottled gas for heating and cooking,
• gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars,
• diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines.

12.2 Hydrocarbons
1 Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning.
2 State that the products of complete combustion of hydrocarbons, exemplified by methane, are carbon dioxide and water.
3 Name, identify and draw the structures of methane, ethane, ethene and ethanol.
4 Recognise alkanes and alkenes from their chemical names or from molecular structures. *
5 Describe the manufacture of alkenes by cracking.*
6 Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes by the addition reaction of alkenes with bromine.