Friday, May 22, 2015

Biology Syllabus 0653 Syllabus 2017-2018

Biology Syllabus 0653 Syllabus
The official CIE syllabus can be found here:
It is best to always refer to the original syllabus.

B1. Characteristics of living organisms
1 List and describe the characteristics of living organisms.

B2. Cells
2.1 Cell structure and organisation
1 State that living organisms are made of cells.
2 Identify and describe the structure of a plant cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver cell), as seen under a light microscope.
3 Relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell to their functions.*
4 Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells.
5 Calculate magnification and size of biological specimens using millimetres as units.

2.2 Movement in and out of cells
1 Define diffusion as the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement.
2 Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent.

B3. Enzymes
1 Define enzymes as proteins that function as biological catalysts.
2 Investigate and describe the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity.
3 Explain the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity.

B4. Nutrition
4.1 Nutrients
1 List the chemical elements that make up:
2 Describe the structure of large molecules made from smaller basic units, i.e.
•simple sugars to starch and glycogen
•amino acids to proteins
•fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils.
3 Describe tests for:
• starch (iodine solution)
• reducing sugars (Benedict’s solution)
• protein (biuret test)
• fats (ethanol)
4 List the principal sources of, and describe the importance of:
• carbohydrates
• fats
• proteins
• vitamins (C and D only)
• mineral salts (calcium and iron only)
• fibre (roughage)
• water.
5 Describe the deficiency symptoms for:
• vitamins (C and D only)
• mineral salts (calcium and iron only)
6 Describe the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of yoghurt.

4.2 Plant nutrition
1 Define photosynthesis as the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light.
2 Explain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and their subsequent storage. *
3 State the word equation for the production of simple sugars and oxygen.
4 State the balanced equation for photosynthesis in symbols 6CO2 + 6H2O light chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2*
5 Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using appropriate controls.
6 Investigate and state the effect of varying light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants).*
7 Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.
8 Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the light microscope.

4.3 Animal nutrition
1 State what is meant by the term balanced diet and describe a balanced diet related to age, sex and activity of an individual.
2 Describe the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, constipation and obesity.*
3 Identify the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs, including mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine: duodenum and ileum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine: colon and rectum, anus.
4 Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed above, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food.
5 Define digestion as the breakdown of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes.
6 Identify the types of human teeth and describe their structure and functions.
7 State the causes of dental decay and describe the proper care of teeth.
8 State the significance of chemical digestion in the alimentary canal in producing small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed.
9 Define absorption as movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood.
10 Identify the small intestine as the region for the absorption of digested food.

B5. Transportation
5.1 Transport in plants
1 State the functions of xylem and phloem.
2 Identify the positions of xylem tissues as seen in transverse sections of unthickened, herbaceous, dicotyledonous roots, stems and leaves.
3 Identify root hair cells, as seen under the light microscope, and state their functions.
4 Relate the structure and functions of root hairs to their surface area and to water and ion uptake.*
5 Investigate, using a suitable stain, the pathway of water through the above-ground parts of a plant.
6 Define transpiration as evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata.
7 Describe the effects of variation of temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate.

5.2 Transport in humans
1 Describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood.
2 Describe the double circulation in terms of a low-pressure circulation to the lungs and a high-pressure circulation to the body tissues, and relate these differences to the different functions of the two circuits.*
3 Describe the structure of the heart, including the muscular wall and septum, atria, ventricles, valves and associated blood vessels.
4 Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes (diet, stress and smoking) and preventive measures. *
5 Describe the function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of the valves.
6 Investigate the effect of physical activity on pulse rate.
7 Investigate, state and explain the effect of physical activity on pulse rate.*
8 Identify red and white blood cells as seen under the light microscope on prepared slides, and in diagrams and photomicrographs.
9 Describe the structure and functions of arteries, veins and capillaries.
10 Explain how structure and function are related in arteries, veins and capillaries.*
11 List the components of blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
12 State the functions of blood:
• red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen transport
• white blood cells – phagocytosis and antibody formation
• platelets – causing clotting (no details)
• plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble nutrients, hormones and carbon dioxide.

B6. Respiration
6.1 Respiration and energy
1 Define respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.
2 State the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction, protein synthesis, cell division, growth, the passage of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a constant body temperature.
3 State the word equation for aerobic respiration.
4 Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen.
5 State the equation for aerobic respiration using symbols (C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O).

6.2 Gas exchange
1 Identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries.
2 List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals. *
3 Explain the role of mucus and cilia in protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles.*
4 Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke particles) on the gas exchange system.*
5 State the differences in composition between inspired and expired air.

6 Use limewater as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air.
7 Investigate and describe the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing.
8 Explain the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing.*

B7. Co-ordination and response
7.1 Hormones
1 Define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.
2 State the role of the hormone adrenaline in chemical control of metabolic activity, including increasing the blood glucose concentration and pulse rate.
3 Give examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases.

7.2 Tropic responses
1 Define and investigate geotropism (as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity) and phototropism (as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from the direction from which light is coming).
2 Explain the chemical control of plant growth by auxins including geotropism and phototropism in terms of auxins regulating differential growth.

B8. Reproduction
8.1 asexual and sexual reproduction
1 Define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.
2 Define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.

8.2 Sexual reproduction in plants
1 Identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one locally available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs.
2 Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one locally available, named, wind-pollinated flower.*
3 State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and ovaries.
4 Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers.
5 Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther or stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma).
6 Name the agents of pollination.
7 Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind-pollinated flowers.*
8 Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen, suitable temperature.

8.3 Sexual reproduction in humans
1 Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system: the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis, and state the functions of these parts.
2 Compare male and female gametes in terms of size, numbers and mobility.*
3 Identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system: the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these parts.
4 Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the uterus and ovaries.
5 Describe fertilisation in terms of the joining of the nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg).
6 Outline early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus.
7 Indicate the functions of the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid. *
8 Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products (no structural details are required)*
9 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using formula milk. *
10 Describe the methods of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the ways in which HIV / AIDS can be prevented from spreading.
11 Outline how HIV affects the immune system in a person with HIV / AIDS.*

B9 Energy flow in ecosystems
1 State that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological systems.
2 Define the terms:
•food chain as showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next, beginning with a producer (e.g. mahogany tree → caterpillar → song bird → hawk)
•food web as a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem
•producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
• consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
• herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants
• carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals.
3 Describe energy losses between trophic levels.*
4 Define the terms:
•decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter •ecosystem as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area, e.g. decomposing log or a lake
•trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain or food web. *
5 Explain why food chains usually have fewer than five trophic levels. *
6 Describe the carbon cycle.
7 Discuss the effects of the combustion of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.*

B 10. Human influences on the ecosystem

1 List the undesirable effects of deforestation (to include extinction, loss of soil, flooding, carbon dioxide build-up).

2 Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include:

• water pollution by sewage and chemical waste

• air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) contributing to global warming.

3 Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of lakes and rivers).*

4 Discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain, and the measures that might be taken to reduce its incidence. *

5 Explain how increases in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are thought to cause global warming.*

6 Describe the need for conservation of:

•species and their habitats

•natural resources (limited to water and non-renewable materials including fossil fuels).